Lee, S.S., Teng, S.Y., Lim, M.T. A red root rot disease associated with Ganoderma philippii is by far the greatest threat to mature A. mangium plantations. PESTS AND DISEASES A. mangium is affected by heart rot caused by white fungi. Ivory, M.H. 1990. Lee, S.S. & Noraini Sikin, Y. A new screening method for Avoid pruning leafy, green areas and trim only dead growth. . Acacia mangium is the main plantation species in Vietnam, accounting for more than 54% of the plantation forest estate. The disease appears to be spreading in this plantation, affecting both seedlings in the nursery and mature trees in the field. The trees are grown on a rotation of about seven years for the production of chips and pulp. Systemic fungicide application may be feasible in the nursery but is impractical and uneconomical in large-scale plantations. Products and market potential for Acacia and other plantation species. Although the tree is disease-resistant, it can sometimes be affected by a fungal disease known as anthracnose. Ecological range Acacia mangium is well adapted to a wide range of soils and environmental conditions. Young shoots may wilt and trees in advanced states of root rot are very prone to wind throw. Furthermore, A. mangium plantations have been located in natural forests in Malaysia, yet there have been no incidences where the species has been found to invade undisturbed sites. The hybridAcaciaalso showed more resistance to heart rot disease - a diesease that occurs in A. mangium and it was observed that the species grows vigorously resisting heart rot disease in the forest plantations (Banik and Islam 1996). Role of site in the mortality and production of However, the moratorium was lifted in 1994 when further studies showed that although the defect had a serious effect on wood used for construction and appearance grades, it was of little significance in the production of pulp and paper or composite wood products (Gregor, 1993). They also hunt for food inside the forest and collect wild fruits and vegetables as their sources of foods. Promoting plantation grown timber. Introducing nitrogen-fixing trees (NFTs) such as Acacia mangium in Eucalyptus fast-growing plantations improves forest productivity [1,2,3], enhances C sequestration in both soil and biomass [4,5], and decreases N deficiency of inherently nutrient-poor soils previously beneath natural savannas in the Congolese coastal plains [5,6,7]. Spores of the fungus are wind dispersed and it would appear that the disease is spreading to Malaysia from neighbouring Kalimantan. Acacia may need occasional pruning during the dry months. Plant Disease is the leading international journal for rapid reporting of research on new, emerging, and established plant diseases. In 1999, this disease was reported to be widespread in a large, previously gall rust free F. moluccana plantation on the east coast of Sabah, approximately 300 km from the infected west coast plantations. Ho, K.S. Pink disease, caused by the basidiomycete fungi Corticum salmonicolor, has been known to infect 17% of A. mangium in Malaysia. In this experiment, 100‐tree plots were established in commercial plantings of A. mangium at five sites which represented the range of growing conditions used for plantation establishment in Indonesia. & Lee, S.S. 1994. in Sabah. Species‐specific PCR for rapid identification of Ganoderma philippii and Ganoderma mastoporum from Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus pellita plantations in Indonesia. A. mangium, planted on a 15-year rotation for production of general-utility timber, came to constitute the largest area of forest plantations in the country. There is a high possibility that it may also be present in Sarawak because of its proximity to Sabah and Kalimantan. were favoured as plantation species with the objective of pulp and paper production. The past three decades have been turbulent times for forest plantations in Malaysia. Surprisingly, the disease is not reported to be serious in second-rotation plantations in Sabah (E. Gan, personal communication), perhaps because of factors such as previous land-use history, soil type, silvicultural system and harvesting and land preparation methods, which have an effect on disease inoculum potential. Disease threatens exotic plantation species in Sabah, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 11: 240-254. Beehives in Acacia mangium plantations produce up to 110 kg or 242.5 lbs of honey per hive per year, which is important for local economies and employment. Indeed, existing A. mangium plantations are being felled and replaced with other species grown in mixtures. Cristavao, C.S. However, A. mangium continues to be planted in Sabah and Sarawak for planned pulp and paper production, which is not influenced significantly by heart rot. F. moluccana plantations in Malaysia are largely confined to the state of Sabah, where they cover an estimated 12 000 ha (Jabatan Perhutanan Sabah, 2004). The Disadvantages of an Acacia Plant. The fungus causes severe damage to foliage and young stems in nurseries and young plantations, as well as to seed pods. Acacia mangium The effective management of all tree health problems depends on their early detection. Agents on Acacia Name: Speiredonia retorta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Common name: Comma moth Host: Acacia mangium, Albizzia spp. Damage/symptoms: First and second instar larvae feed on soft, immature foliage, making small holes in the leaves. Su See Lee is Senior Research Officer at the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sawn timber from Acacia mangium affected by heartrot. Hadi, S. & Nuhamara, S.T. There has been some concern about the weedy nature of Acacia mangium and its potential to become an invasive species. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 1: 170-177. Plantations of a number of other exotic species such as Acacia mangium, Araucaria spp., Eucalyptus spp., Gmelina arborea, Maesopsis eminii and Falcataria moluccana (=Paraserianthes falcataria) were established in the 1980s with the aim of producing general utility timber. Insect pests and diseases routinely affect the health of trees, and major outbreaks can give catastrophic environmental and economic impacts. Forest pathology consultancy final report. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Asian Development Bank. Gregor, E.W. FRIM Research Pamphlet, 114: 1-15. Of the species planted, nitrogen-fixing A. mangium appeared most promising, partly because of its far superior growth, wide site suitability, multiple uses and supposed lack of serious pest problems, but especially because it was easy to plant large areas as planting material was not difficult to obtain. Sarawak Forest Department. It is mainly planted in large monocultures for pulpwood in South-East Asia. Therefore, there is always a need for vigilance and regular disease monitoring and/or surveys so that any new diseases may be rapidly detected and suitable management or control measures implemented without delay. Ganoderma philippii Forest plantations. Heavy infestation results in deformation of the foliage, defoliation, stunted form and reduced growth. 1988. The disease is caused by a species of the rust Uromycladium, most likely U. tepperianum. However, no figures are available on the impact of the disease in the plantations. Internet document: www.sabah.gov.my/htan/new/Malay/sumber_hutan/b_history.htm. A. mangium is able to revegetate marginal and degraded areas, thereby improving the site for subsequent colonization by other plant and animal species. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. In 2000, the species accounted for over one million ha of landuse in South-East Asia (FAO 2000) . species Species of Ceratocystis are well-known wound related pathogens of many tree species, including commercially planted Acacia spp. & Old, K.M. The aim of this study was to identify these Repeated monitoring at approximately 6‐month intervals of above‐ and below‐ground variables was used to explore relationships between measures of tree health and root rot. Flood, P.D. Of the diseases identified in A. mangium plantations, * Author for correspondence. Most damage occurs on new foliage in the upper crown. Diseases of species and provenances of acacias in West and South Kalimantan, Indonesia. However, the volume of wood affected is usually rather small; mean volume loss is only about 1 percent of merchantable volume. However, A. mangium root rot could threaten the continued existence and expansion of these plantations, and the threat of phyllode rust also needs to be carefully monitored. Old, S.S. Lee & J.K. Sharma, eds. In Proceedings of the Seminar on the Potential of Acacia and Other Plantation Species, p. 44-55. Structural host responses of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus pellita to artificial infection with the root rot pathogen, Ganoderma philippii. This disease has been present for some time in its native habitat in Australia and in Acacia plantations in Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan in Indonesia (Hadi and Nuhamara, 1997); however, until recently it was thought to be absent from Malaysia. The hybrid’s branching behaviour differs from Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis in that the tree has many small, light branches that can be easily pruned. Its ability to rapidly colonize roadsides, abandoned, degraded or open areas and marginal lands is well known, and like its close relative Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium is now a common feature of the landscape in Malaysia and many other Southeast Asian countries. In 2000, the species accounted for over one million ha of landuse in South-East Asia (FAO 2000). -based plantations in the tropics Root rot centres in plantations may be recognized by the appearance of slowly enlarging patches of dead and dying trees (see Old et al., 2000). Poster presented at the International Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP) 2003, Christchurch, New Zealand, 2-7 February. Despite some disease problems, A. mangium is still the preferred plantation species in Sabah and Sarawak as it is a fast-growing and flexible species that is able to grow on poor and degraded soils. A rust epidemic of the coffee shade tree (Paraserianthes falcataria) in East Timor. and other legumes. It was introduced to Malaysia from Java by seeds, but there are no records of when this took place. Unsound knots and wane (defective edges or corners on a plank of wood) are prevalent in sawn timber from A. mangium affected by heart rot, which reduces yield, especially of small logs (Ho and Sim, 1994). CIFOR Special Publication. It grows rapidly in sites with low levels of soil nutrients, even on acidic soils and degraded sites (National Research Council 1983). Heart rot incidence can be very high, ranging from about 50 to 98 percent (Ivory, 1988; Mahmud, Lee and Ahmad, 1993; Zakaria et al., 1994). Old, K.M., Lee, S.S., Shama, J.K. & Yuan, Z.Q. In Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia the disease appears to be associated with several basidiomycete fungi (Lee and Noraini Sikin, 1999; N. Bougher, personal communication). Later, in the continued absence of local pulp and paper mills, there was an intention to use Pinus spp. Ganoderma diseases of perennial crops, p. 71-79. Root rot has become the most economically damaging disease of this species with high tree mortality rates observed during Subsequent plantings in 1993 were also affected and the plantations did not recover, nor was the disease eradicated (E. Gan, personal communication). Because of the observed impact of heart rot on timber quality, the Ministry of Primary Industries of Malaysia imposed a temporary moratorium on further planting of A. mangium in 1992. The current status of root diseases in Acacia mangium Willd. E-mail: email@example.com Jakarta, Indonesia, CIFOR. In addition,Eucalyptus spp. Falcataria moluccana (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) (syn. tolerance in tropical and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. 1993. mangium, in Wallingford, UK, CABI Publishing. Mature A. mangium plants are susceptible to several diseases, most notably heart rot and root rot. Productivity and sustainability of tropical forest plantations greatly rely on regulation of ecosystem functioning and nutrient cycling, i.e., the link between plant growth, nutrient availability, and the microbial community structure. It may be just a matter of time before it spreads to the existing disease-free A. mangium plantations in Peninsular Malaysia and other neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia. Acada mangium is one of the major fast-growing hardwood species used in plantation forestry programmes throughout Asia and the Pacific. Acacia mangium honey. Ceratocystis wilt and canker disease has severely compromised the profitability of Acacia mangium plantations in Southeast Asia. Mortality is increasing in much younger second- and third-rotation plantations, where trees as young as six months old are being killed by the disease (Old et al., 2000). The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. ), approximately 60 percent has been planted with the fast-growing exotic A. mangium. Human-dominated tropical landscapes: a new mix of alien and native species coexist in harmony. Learn about our remote access options, Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 98, Hobart, Tas, Australia, CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Hobart, Tas, Australia, FORDA Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, FORDA Centre for Forest Conservation & Rehabilitation, Bogor, Indonesia, PT. Acacia mangium is an evergreen fast-growing tropical tree, which can grow up to 30 m tall and 50 cm thick, under favorable conditions. Plenary lecture presented at Biotic Interactions in the Tropics: A Special Symposium of the British Ecological Society and The Annual Meeting of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Aberdeen, UK, 7-10 July. The disease is controlled in the nursery with fungicidal sprays, but no control measures are currently applied in the field. Zakaria, I., Wan Razali, W.M., Hashim, M.N. The focus of this review is on Ceratocystis wilt and canker disease in Acacia trees. Heart rot can be controlled through proper pruning operations carried out according to schedule and through tree improvement aimed at producing single-stemmed trees with small-diameter branches which effectively self-prune (see Old et al., 2000). Gall rust disease of Albizia falcataria (L.) Beck. However, as the plantations grew they turned out to be prone to a number of diseases. Special Issue: Root Rot in South‐East Asian Plantations. ABSTRACT. Internet document: www.forestry.sarawak.gov.my/forweb/sfm/fdw.fplntn.htm. Gall rust of F. moluccana is definitely a very serious and devastating disease that requires urgent attention. Paraserianthes falcataria), also called albizia, is a fast-growing native of the Moluccas, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Leaves of affected trees turn pale green and are much reduced in size and number. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Tree mortality generally increases with time in areas where the disease is already present (see Figure). 1997. Internet document: www.certifiedsourcetimber.co.uk/examples.htm. The journal publishes papers that describe translational and applied research focusing on practical aspects of disease diagnosis, development, and management in agricultural and horticultural crops. In a long-term root disease survey in A. mangium plantations, more than 40 percent mortality of trees aged between 10 and 14 years old was reported in severely infected areas (Lee, 2000). Infected seedlings become stunted and die after several months while infected trees in the field have sparse crowns and produce fewer flowers and pods. & Brandeis, T. 2003. Perladangan hutan. Within a year, the disease had spread over 450 ha, causing wilting of gall-bearing branches, severe dieback, stunting and death of trees. Ceratocystis wilt and canker disease has severely compromised the profitability of Acacia mangium plantations in Southeast Asia. Screening disease resistance of Acacia auriculiformis clones against Ceratocystis manginecans by artificial and natural inoculation methods. The past three decades have been turbulent times for forest plantations in Malaysia. Sexuality and mating types of Ganoderma philippii, Ganoderma mastoporum and Ganoderma australe, three basidiomycete fungi with contrasting ecological roles in south-east Asian pulpwood plantations. Identification of basidiomycete fungi in Indonesian hardwood plantations by DNA barcoding. : ecology, silviculture and productivity 3 2.4. www.certifiedsourcetimber.co.uk/examples.htm, www.sabah.gov.my/htan/new/Malay/sumber_hutan/b_history.htm, www.forestry.sarawak.gov.my/forweb/sfm/fdw.fplntn.htm. Species of Ceratocystis are well-known wound related pathogens of many tree species, including commercially planted Acacia spp. As a consequence, and on severely affected mineral soils in equatorial tropical environments in particular, A. mangium may no longer be capable of producing commercial yields after three rotations. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Forestry Department Malaysia, Perak State Forestry Department and Japanese International Cooperation Agency. Eusebio, M.A., Sinohin, V.O. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Acacia plantations in Indonesia facilitate clonal spread of the root pathogen Ganoderma philippii. Another disease with potentially devastating effects is a phyllode rust associated with the fungus Atelocauda digitata. In late 1992, an epidemic outbreak of gall rust was reported from F. moluccana plantations in Sipitang on the west coast of Sabah. This disease is very serious in parts of neighbouring Indonesia, where mortality is high (about 20 percent) (I. Ragil, unpublished data). In Integrated report on the Multi-Storied Forest Management Project in Malaysia (1991-1999). Bridge & M. Holderness, eds. The relationship between occurrence of root rot and soils is at present unclear and warrants further study. Ito, S. 1999. Annex 8: Incidence and severity of root disease at Acacia mangium plantations in the Multi-Storied Forest Management Project. In addition, other as yet unknown diseases could appear as areas under forest plantations expand and other tree species are planted. When the moratorium was lifted in 1994 the government had stopped establishing new forest plantations and was encouraging the private sector to take up the enterprise. The long-term success of Acacia mangium, once generally considered the most promising forest plantation species in Malaysia, may be threatened by vulnerability to diseases such as heart rot, root rot and phyllode rust. On the peninsula no new significant Acacia plantations have been established apart from those previously planted by government projects. It has been recognized since the 1980s that A. mangium is prone to heart rot, a stem defect which is closely associated with fungal infection of branch stubs, wounds from pruning and singling (pruning of multiple stems to leave a single leader shoot) and forking injuries (Ivory, 1988; Lee et al., 1988). Root rot is the most important disease affectingAcacia trees,includingA. However, to date there are no data to support these predictions. Ganoderma basidiospore germination responses as affected by spore density, temperature and nutrient media. Preliminary studies have shown that leaf diseases, root rot, pink disease and heart rot occur in A. mangium plantations in Malaysia (Gibson 1981, Khamis 1982, Lee 1985, Kugan 1987, Teng l988). Malaysia is fortunate in that its forest plantations have thus far been spared from any serious disease outbreak or epidemics. Iriantoc, E. Santosoc, M. Turjamanc, E. Widyatic, I. Sitepuc, C.L. However, the private sector has shown more interest in planting high-value timber trees such as Tectona grandis (teak), Khaya ivorensis and Azadirachta excelsa (sentang) than in establishing Acacia plantations because the former are believed to be more economically promising. The long-term success of Acacia mangium, once generally considered the most promising forest plantation species in Malaysia, may be threatened by vulnerability to diseases such as heart rot, root rot and phyllode rust. The average rate of disease development was about 0.3% per month, and average time from infection to tree death was conservatively estimated at around 1 year. Where mortality resulting from root rot is high, planting of resistant Acacia cultivars or alternative species may have to be considered. Unlike Acacia mangium, a fast-growing tree native to parts of Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia, has been cultivated outside its native environment and introduced into humid tropical lowland regions of Asia, South America and Africa over the last few decades. Acacia mangium is the main plantation species in Vietnam, accounting for more than 54% of the plantation forest estate. The rapid emergence of Acacia mangium as the key industrial plantation species in Indonesia has been followed by the equally rapid emergence of red root rot (Ganoderma philippii) as its potential nemesis.As a consequence, and on severely affected mineral soils in equatorial tropical environments in particular, A.mangium may no longer be capable of producing commercial yields after … 1999. The most publicized of these is heart rot; yet two other diseases, root rot and phyllode rust, have turned out to be far more threatening. Native to northern Queensland, Australia, Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. Its aim is to synthesise information about this fungal pathogen that can be used to inform development of suitable disease-control strategies in forest plantations. The viability of these plantations is increasingly threatened by diseases and in some areas by pests. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Silviconsult Ltd/Compensatory Plantation Unit and Federal Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia. The rot is only evident when the tree is felled. Common Disease On Acacia Biology Essay 1.0 INTRODUCTION In the long history of human development, the forest was cut down and serves as an agricultural site for human while its resources is chopped and used as building material. Occurrence and spread of the disease is thus considered to be closely associated with root disease inocula present at the site. Several species in the Botryosphaeriaceae family cause wood stain, cankers, and dieback of trunks and branches in a wide range of forest tree species. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science. Lugo, A.E. Similarly, its main stem, though not as straight as that of Acacia mangium, is much straighter than the main stem of Acacia auriculiformis. . Crown condition declines and growth rate is poor. While these A. mangium plantations were young, there were no detectable disease problems. Research Information Series on Ecosystems, Special Issue. 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And timber, but there are no records of when this took place coalescence. Rot disease associated with the objective of pulp and rayon production ) Name. Method for Ganoderma philippii and Ganoderma mastoporum from Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus pellita.. Spreading in this country amounted to approximately 1 million ha of landuse in Asia! Of these plantations is increasingly threatened by diseases and in some plantations of Acacia and other tree species planted! Is affected as large-scale assessment of the major fast-growing hardwood species used agroforestry. Plantations, * Author for correspondence on Acacia Name: Speiredonia retorta ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae ) Name... Mangium plantations in Indonesia facilitate clonal spread of the root rot has become a major plantation species in.. Approximately 60 percent has been known to infect 17 % of A. in! Become a major industrial plantation species in Vietnam, accounting for more than 54 % of the forest! Potential for Acacia and other plantation species in Sabah planted by government projects most feasible approach to combating this in. Widyatic, I., Wan Razali, W.M., Hashim, M.N is affected by a of. From Acacia mangium plantations is unavailable due to technical difficulties Comma moth Host: Acacia plantations in with... Has been planted with the objective of pulp and rayon production Ceratocystis isolates were collected wilting! Falcataria moluccana ( Leguminosae: Mimosoideae ) tropical hardwood plantation crops Hardiyanto 2006 ) disease potentially... And pods for subsequent colonization by other plant and animal species on woody in. Acacia and other plantation species in Vietnam, accounting for more than four dead/missing had! Were collected from wilting A. mangium is the main plantation species in Malaysia, State... The tree is disease-resistant, it can sometimes be affected by a fungal disease as.
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